Presently many people are trying to reduce their unwanted body weight. By reducing unnecessary weight, the body and mind can be relieved. To do this you have to make a strong goal and make a commitment.
Weight Loss – Its Definition and Types
Intentional weight loss – is the loss of total body mass as a result of efforts to improve fitness and health, to change appearance through slimming. Weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese can reduce health risks, increase fitness, and may delay the onset of diabetes. It could reduce pain and increase movement in people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Weight loss can lead to a reduction in hypertension (high blood pressure).
Unintentional weight loss – may result from loss of body fats, loss of body fluids, muscle atrophy, or even a combination of these. It is generally regarded as a medical problem when at least 10% of a person’s body weight has been lost in six months or 5% in the last month. Another criterion used for assessing weight that is too low is the body mass. However, even lesser amounts of weight loss can be a cause for serious concern in a frail elderly person.
Tips to weight loss
The amount of drinking water required to maintain good health varies, and depends on physical activity level, age, health-related issues, and environmental conditions.
The amount of drinking water required is variable. It depends on physical activity, age, health, and environmental conditions. In a temperate climate under normal conditions, adequate water intake is about 2.7 litres (95 imp fl oz; 91 US fl oz) for adult women and 3.7 litres (130 imp fl oz; 130 US fl oz) for adult men. Physical exercise and heat exposure cause loss of water and therefore may induce thirst and greater water intake.
Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute to maintaining a healthy weight, regulating the digestive system, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system. Some studies indicate that exercise may increase life expectancy and the overall quality of life. People who participate in moderate to high levels of physical exercise have a lower mortality rate compared to individuals who by comparison are not physically active.
Here are few exercises out of many more.
- Aerobics– Which increase the breathing and heart rate for a continuous sustained period. The typical examples of this exercise include swimming, bicycling, stepping and walking. For best results, you can do at least two to three exercises every day.
- Cardiovascular Exercises with Equipment– Machines can offer multiple cardiovascular exercises. The common examples of these are elliptical trainers, stair climbers, adaptive motion trainers and a lot more. Most of these devices help in monitoring your heart rate while reducing more body fats.
- Strength Training– This is perfect to all ages and recognized as a vital component of fitness. Whether you wish to practice lifting weights or doing weight-resistance exercises, it can help in increasing or maintaining muscle mass. It can also reduce weight and develop a healthy body condition.
Increasing protein intake
The satiating property of dietary protein is influenced by when the protein is consumed. Studies have shown that protein intake at breakfast has a greater effect on satiety than during later meal times. There are several explanations as to why this is the case. Firstly, protein has a greater thermogenic effect than carbohydrates and fat, which enables the body to burn more calories. Secondly, a high protein breakfast appears to slow gastric emptying, which attributes to the fact that protein appears to be the most satiating macronutrient. Finally, a high protein breakfast increases the activity of glucagon, which activates the pathways for glucose synthesis.
Modifying plate size
Using smaller plates helps to consume smaller portion sizes which leads to the consumption of fewer calories. Studies have shown that portion size influences energy intake. People who are presented with larger portions do not report to have a higher level of satiety, which suggests that hunger and satiety signals are ignored when a large portion of food is placed in front of them. In particular, one study showed that participants consumed 31% less calories with the small portion sized of a 6-inch submarine sandwich compared with the large portion size of a 12-inch submarine sandwich. Increased portion sizes have occurred simultaneously with the increase in obesity rates; hence, large portion sizes can be one of the factors contributing to the current increase in average body weight in the US. Evidence from a systematic review of 72 randomized controlled trials indicates that people consistently eat more food when offered larger portion, package, or tableware sizes rather than smaller size alternatives.
Eating more soup
Soups have a significant effect on satiety. Studies have demonstrated that when compared to solid foods, soup ingestion decreases the amount of energy intake. When soup is consumed before a meal, there is a 20% decrease in the number of calories consumed during the meal.
Choosing low-calorie foods
A moderate decrease in caloric intake will lead to a slow weight loss, which is often more beneficial for long term weight management vs rapid weight loss. For example, choosing a black coffee instead of a full fat latte will save calories that will add up in the long run. Low fat meats reduce the total amount of calories and cholesterol consumed. For example, traditional beef patties have 19.2% fat and 272 kcal per 100 g of meat. On the other hand, lean beef patties have 9.8%fat and 196 kcal.
Eating more dairy
Studies have shown that a diet high in dairy decreases total body fat. This occurs because a high amount of dietary calcium increases the amount of energy and fat excreted from the body. Studies have shown that saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats all have a higher excretion rate with a high calcium intake. In these studies, a high calcium intake is considered 2300 mg and a low calcium intake is considered 700 mg. A possible explanation to this phenomenon is that high intakes of calcium cause calcium soap formation and/ or binding of bile acids in the intestine. Other studies specifically show that dairy sources of calcium demonstrate greater weight loss than supplemental calcium intake. This may be due to the other bioactive components present in milk, which may aid in metabolic efficiency and fat loss. The accuracy of this statement remains controversial. Since most natural dairy products contain fat content, there is a common understanding that this may cause weight gain. In addition, dairy contains some key ingredients such as whey protein and combinations protein/calcium that have a positive effect on satiety, increases energy loss, and finally assists weight loss.
Incorporating more vegetables into meals
Fruits and vegetables have been shown to increase satiety and decrease hunger. These foods have a low energy density, which is mainly due to the high water content and partly due to the fiber content. The reduction of energy density has been shown to enhance satiety. The water adds weight, without adding calories and the fiber slows gastric emptying. Both of these factors contribute to the satiating effect of vegetables and fruits. Studies have also shown that fiber decreases hunger and also decreases total energy intake.
Increasing fiber intake
Dietary fiber has been suggested to aid weight management by inducing satiety, decreasing absorption of macronutrients and promoting secretion of gut hormones. Dietary fiber consists of non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin, which are a structural component in plants. Fiber recommendations range from 10 – 13 grams/1000 calories, with slightly higher recommendations for men.
Due to the high volume or water content of fiber-rich foods, fiber displaces available calories and nutrients from the diet. Consumption of viscous fibers delays gastric emptying, which may cause an extended feeling of fullness. Satiety is also induced by increasing chewing, which limits food intake by promoting the secretion of saliva and gastric juice, resulting in an expansion of the stomach. In addition, hormone secretion is affected during fiber ingestion. Insulin response is reduced and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the small intestine is increased. Insulin regulates blood glucose levels while CCK adjusts gastric emptying, pancreatic secretion and gall bladder contraction. There is direct correlation between CCK and satiety after foods of different fiber contents are consumed. Fiber may have the added benefit of helping consumers decrease food intake throughout the day. However, results of trials examining this possibility have been conflicting. In general, large intakes of dietary fiber at breakfast are associated with less food intake at a lunch.
Increasing resistant starch intake
Resistant starch is a type of non-digestible, fermentable fiber that is resistant to amylase digestion in the small intestine, and is broken down to short-chain fatty acids by microflora in the large intestine. It is commonly found in cooked and cooled potatoes, green bananas, beans and legumes. Resistant starch dilutes energy density of food intake, has a bulking effect similar to non-fermentable fiber, and increases the expression of PYY and GLP-1 in the gut. The increase in gut hormones can affect long-term energy balance by affecting neuronal pathways in the brain as well as improved overall health of the intestines. Based on developing research, consumption of resistant starch can be an effective means of weight management.
Clinical research on capsaicin has showed that consumption of the spice during breakfast can increase energy expenditure by 23% immediately after meal ingestion. Capsaicin, also known as hot pepper, is a primary ingredient in chilli peppers and red hot peppers.Hot peppers have been reported to induce thermogenesis at the cellular level.
Increasing caffeine intake
Caffeine and black coffee have been associated with increased energy expenditure and subsequent weight loss. Caffeine belongs to a class of compounds called methylxanthines, and is present in coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate and some cola drinks. Caffeine induces a thermogenic effect in the body by increasing sympathetic nervous system activity, which is an important regulator of energy expenditure.
Increasing green tea intake
Green tea has been associated with decreasing blood glucose, inhibiting hepatic and body fat accumulation, and stimulating thermogenesis due to the catechins that are present. Catechins are polyphenols that are a major component of green tea extract. Green tea has also been shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans, independent of the caffeine content. In a human study conducted, 690 mg of catechins daily for 12 weeks reduced body fat, suggesting that green tea might be useful in the prevention of chronic disease, particularly obesity. Moreover, catechins in the brain play a major role in satiety.